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Notation

The following notation is used throughout this memo.

HDR is an ISAKMP header whose exchange type is the mode. When written as HDR* it indicates payload encryption.
SA is an SA negotiation payload with one or more proposals. An initiator MAY provide multiple proposals for negotiation; a responder MUST reply with only one.
<P>_b indicates the body of payload <P>-- the ISAKMP generic vpayload is not included.
SAi_b is the entire body of the SA payload (minus the ISAKMP generic header)-- i.e. the DOI, situation, all proposals and all transforms offered by the Initiator.
CKY-I and CKY-R are the Initiator's cookie and the Responder's cookie, respectively, from the ISAKMP header.
g^xi and g^xr are the Diffie-Hellman ([DH]) public values of the initiator and responder respectively.
g^xy is the Diffie-Hellman shared secret.
KE is the key exchange payload which contains the public information exchanged in a Diffie-Hellman exchange. There is no particular encoding (e.g. a TLV) used for the data of a KE payload.
Nx is the nonce payload; x can be: i or r for the ISAKMP initiator and responder respectively.
IDx is the identification payload for "x". x can be: "ii" or "ir" for the ISAKMP initiator and responder respectively during phase one negotiation; or "ui" or "ur" for the user initiator and responder respectively during phase two. The ID payload format for the Internet DOI is defined in [Pip97].
SIG is the signature payload. The data to sign is exchange-specific.
CERT is the certificate payload.
HASH (and any derivitive such as HASH(2) or HASH_I) is the hash payload. The contents of the hash are specific to the authentication method.
prf(key, msg) is the keyed pseudo-random function-- often a keyed hash function-- used to generate a deterministic output that appears pseudo-random. prf's are used both for key derivations and for authentication (i.e. as a keyed MAC). (See [KBC96]).
SKEYID is a string derived from secret material known only to the active players in the exchange.
SKEYID_e is the keying material used by the ISAKMP SA to protect the confidentiality of its messages.
SKEYID_a is the keying material used by the ISAKMP SA to authenticate its messages.
SKEYID_d is the keying material used to derive keys for non-ISAKMP security associations.
<x>y indicates that "x" is encrypted with the key "y".
signifies "initiator to responder" communication (requests).
<-- signifies "responder to initiator" communication (replies).
| signifies concatenation of information-- e.g. X | Y is the concatentation of X with Y.
[x] indicates that x is optional.

Message encryption (when noted by a '*' after the ISAKMP header) MUST begin immediately after the ISAKMP header. When communication is protected, all payloads following the ISAKMP header MUST be encrypted. Encryption keys are generated from SKEYID_e in a manner that is defined for each algorithm.

Perfect Forward Secrecy

When used in the memo Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) refers to the notion that compromise of a single key will permit access to only data protected by a single key. For PFS to exist the key used to protect transmission of data MUST NOT be used to derive any additional keys, and if the key used to protect transmission of data was derived from some other keying material, that material MUST NOT be used to derive any more keys.

Perfect Forward Secrecy for both keys and identities is provided in this protocol. (Sections 5.5 and 8).

Security Association

A security association (SA) is a set of policy and key(s) used to protect information. The ISAKMP SA is the shared policy and key(s) used by the negotiating peers in this protocol to protect their communication.